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The Berkeley Artificial Intelligence Research (BAIR) Lab brings together UC Berkeley researchers across the areas of computer vision, machine learning, natural language processing, planning, and robotics. BAIR includes over two dozen faculty and more than a hundred graduate students pursuing research on fundamental advances in the above areas as well as cross-cutting themes including multi-modal deep learning, human-compatible AI, and connecting AI with other scientific disciplines and the humanities. The BAIR Blog provides an accessible, general-audience medium for BAIR researchers to communicate research findings, perspectives on the field, and various updates. Posts are written by students, post-docs, and faculty in BAIR, and are intended to provide relevant and timely discussion of research findings and results, both to experts and the general audience.

by   -   May 6, 2020

By Benjamin Eysenbach and Abhishek Gupta

This post is cross-listed on the CMU ML blog.

The history of machine learning has largely been a story of increasing abstraction. In the dawn of ML, researchers spent considerable effort engineering features. As deep learning gained popularity, researchers then shifted towards tuning the update rules and learning rates for their optimizers. Recent research in meta-learning has climbed one level of abstraction higher: many researchers now spend their days manually constructing task distributions, from which they can automatically learn good optimizers. What might be the next rung on this ladder? In this post we introduce theory and algorithms for unsupervised meta-learning, where machine learning algorithms themselves propose their own task distributions. Unsupervised meta-learning further reduces the amount of human supervision required to solve tasks, potentially inserting a new rung on this ladder of abstraction.

by   -   April 6, 2020

By Xue Bin (Jason) Peng

Whether it’s a dog chasing after a ball, or a monkey swinging through the trees, animals can effortlessly perform an incredibly rich repertoire of agile locomotion skills. But designing controllers that enable legged robots to replicate these agile behaviors can be a very challenging task. The superior agility seen in animals, as compared to robots, might lead one to wonder: can we create more agile robotic controllers with less effort by directly imitating animals?

by   -   March 18, 2020

Reinforcement learning has seen a great deal of success in solving complex decision making problems ranging from robotics to games to supply chain management to recommender systems. Despite their success, deep reinforcement learning algorithms can be exceptionally difficult to use, due to unstable training, sensitivity to hyperparameters, and generally unpredictable and poorly understood convergence properties. Multiple explanations, and corresponding solutions, have been proposed for improving the stability of such methods, and we have seen good progress over the last few years on these algorithms. In this blog post, we will dive deep into analyzing a central and underexplored reason behind some of the problems with the class of deep RL algorithms based on dynamic programming, which encompass the popular DQN and soft actor-critic (SAC) algorithms – the detrimental connection between data distributions and learned models.

by   -   January 26, 2020

By Glen Berseth

All living organisms carve out environmental niches within which they can maintain relative predictability amidst the ever-increasing entropy around them (1), (2). Humans, for example, go to great lengths to shield themselves from surprise — we band together in millions to build cities with homes, supplying water, food, gas, and electricity to control the deterioration of our bodies and living spaces amidst heat and cold, wind and storm. The need to discover and maintain such surprise-free equilibria has driven great resourcefulness and skill in organisms across very diverse natural habitats. Motivated by this, we ask: could the motive of preserving order amidst chaos guide the automatic acquisition of useful behaviors in artificial agents?

by   -   December 7, 2019

By Aviral Kumar

One of the primary factors behind the success of machine learning approaches in open world settings, such as image recognition and natural language processing, has been the ability of high-capacity deep neural network function approximators to learn generalizable models from large amounts of data. Deep reinforcement learning methods, however, require active online data collection, where the model actively interacts with its environment. This makes such methods hard to scale to complex real-world problems, where active data collection means that large datasets of experience must be collected for every experiment – this can be expensive and, for systems such as autonomous vehicles or robots, potentially unsafe. In a number of domains of practical interest, such as autonomous driving, robotics, and games, there exist plentiful amounts of previously collected interaction data which, consists of informative behaviours that are a rich source of prior information. Deep RL algorithms that can utilize such prior datasets will not only scale to real-world problems, but will also lead to solutions that generalize substantially better. A data-driven paradigm for reinforcement learning will enable us to pre-train and deploy agents capable of sample-efficient learning in the real-world.

by   -   December 7, 2019

By Sudeep Dasari

This post is cross-listed at the SAIL Blog and the CMU ML blog.

In the last decade, we’ve seen learning-based systems provide transformative solutions for a wide range of perception and reasoning problems, from recognizing objects in images to recognizing and translating human speech. Recent progress in deep reinforcement learning (i.e. integrating deep neural networks into reinforcement learning systems) suggests that the same kind of success could be realized in automated decision making domains. If fruitful, this line of work could allow learning-based systems to tackle active control tasks, such as robotics and autonomous driving, alongside the passive perception tasks to which they have already been successfully applied.

by   -   November 6, 2019

By David Gaddy

When learning to follow natural language instructions, neural networks tend to be very data hungry – they require a huge number of examples pairing language with actions in order to learn effectively. This post is about reducing those heavy data requirements by first watching actions in the environment before moving on to learning from language data. Inspired by the idea that it is easier to map language to meanings that have already been formed, we introduce a semi-supervised approach that aims to separate the formation of abstractions from the learning of language.

by   -   October 21, 2019

By Eric Liang and Richard Liaw and Clement Gehring

In this blog post, we explore a functional paradigm for implementing reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms. The paradigm will be that developers write the numerics of their algorithm as independent, pure functions, and then use a library to compile them into policies that can be trained at scale. We share how these ideas were implemented in RLlib’s policy builder API, eliminating thousands of lines of “glue” code and bringing support for Keras and TensorFlow 2.0.

by   -   October 3, 2019

By Anusha Nagabandi

Dexterous manipulation with multi-fingered hands is a grand challenge in robotics: the versatility of the human hand is as yet unrivaled by the capabilities of robotic systems, and bridging this gap will enable more general and capable robots. Although some real-world tasks (like picking up a television remote or a screwdriver) can be accomplished with simple parallel jaw grippers, there are countless tasks (like functionally using the remote to change the channel or using the screwdriver to screw in a nail) in which dexterity enabled by redundant degrees of freedom is critical. In fact, dexterous manipulation is defined as being object-centric, with the goal of controlling object movement through precise control of forces and motions — something that is not possible without the ability to simultaneously impact the object from multiple directions. For example, using only two fingers to attempt common tasks such as opening the lid of a jar or hitting a nail with a hammer would quickly encounter the challenges of slippage, complex contact forces, and underactuation. Although dexterous multi-fingered hands can indeed enable flexibility and success of a wide range of manipulation skills, many of these more complex behaviors are also notoriously difficult to control: They require finely balancing contact forces, breaking and reestablishing contacts repeatedly, and maintaining control of unactuated objects. Success in such settings requires a sufficiently dexterous hand, as well as an intelligent policy that can endow such a hand with the appropriate control strategy. We study precisely this in our work on Deep Dynamics Models for Learning Dexterous Manipulation.

by   -   October 3, 2019

By Kourosh Hakhamaneshi

In this post, we share some recent promising results regarding the applications of Deep Learning in analog IC design. While this work targets a specific application, the proposed methods can be used in other black box optimization problems where the environment lacks a cheap/fast evaluation procedure.

by   -   August 14, 2019

By Nicholas Carlini

It is important whenever designing new technologies to ask “how will this affect people’s privacy?” This topic is especially important with regard to machine learning, where machine learning models are often trained on sensitive user data and then released to the public. For example, in the last few years we have seen models trained on users’ private emails, text messages, and medical records.

This article covers two aspects of our upcoming USENIX Security paper that investigates to what extent neural networks memorize rare and unique aspects of their training data.

Specifically, we quantitatively study to what extent following problem actually occurs in practice:

by   -   June 22, 2019
Effect of Population Based Augmentation applied to images, which differs at different percentages into training.

In this blog post we introduce Population Based Augmentation (PBA), an algorithm that quickly and efficiently learns a state-of-the-art approach to augmenting data for neural network training. PBA matches the previous best result on CIFAR and SVHN but uses one thousand times less compute, enabling researchers and practitioners to effectively learn new augmentation policies using a single workstation GPU. You can use PBA broadly to improve deep learning performance on image recognition tasks.

We discuss the PBA results from our recent paper and then show how to easily run PBA for yourself on a new data set in the Tune framework.

by   -   June 22, 2019

By Eugene Vinitsky

We are in the midst of an unprecedented convergence of two rapidly growing trends on our roadways: sharply increasing congestion and the deployment of autonomous vehicles. Year after year, highways get slower and slower: famously, China’s roadways were paralyzed by a two-week long traffic jam in 2010. At the same time as congestion worsens, hundreds of thousands of semi-autonomous vehicles (AVs), which are vehicles with automated distance and lane-keeping capabilities, are being deployed on highways worldwide. The second trend offers a perfect opportunity to alleviate the first. The current generation of AVs, while very far from full autonomy, already hold a multitude of advantages over human drivers that make them perfectly poised to tackle this congestion. Humans are imperfect drivers: accelerating when we shouldn’t, braking aggressively, and make short-sighted decisions, all of which creates and amplifies patterns of congestion.

by   -   June 3, 2019

By Avi Singh

Communicating the goal of a task to another person is easy: we can use language, show them an image of the desired outcome, point them to a how-to video, or use some combination of all of these. On the other hand, specifying a task to a robot for reinforcement learning requires substantial effort. Most prior work that has applied deep reinforcement learning to real robots makes uses of specialized sensors to obtain rewards or studies tasks where the robot’s internal sensors can be used to measure reward. For example, using thermal cameras for tracking fluids, or purpose-built computer vision systems for tracking objects. Since such instrumentation needs to be done for any new task that we may wish to learn, it poses a significant bottleneck to widespread adoption of reinforcement learning for robotics, and precludes the use of these methods directly in open-world environments that lack this instrumentation.

by   -   May 27, 2019

By Marvin Zhang and Sharad Vikram

Imagine a robot trying to learn how to stack blocks and push objects using visual inputs from a camera feed. In order to minimize cost and safety concerns, we want our robot to learn these skills with minimal interaction time, but efficient learning from complex sensory inputs such as images is difficult. This work introduces SOLAR, a new model-based reinforcement learning (RL) method that can learn skills – including manipulation tasks on a real Sawyer robot arm – directly from visual inputs with under an hour of interaction. To our knowledge, SOLAR is the most efficient RL method for solving real world image-based robotics tasks.