Robohub.org
 

The pedestrian experiment

by
10 September 2018



share this:

Followers of this blog will know that I have been working for some years on simulation-based internal models – demonstrating their potential for ethical robotssafer robots and imitating robots. But pretty much all of our experiments so far have involved only one robot with a simulation-based internal model while the other robots it interacts with have no internal model at all.

But some time ago we wondered what would happen if two robots, each with a simulation-based internal model, interacted with each other. Imagine two such robots approaching each other in the same way that two pedestrians approach each other on the sidewalk. Is it possible that these ‘pedestrian’ robots might, from time to time, engage in the kind of ‘dance’ that human pedestrians do when one steps to their left and the other to their right only to compound the problem of avoiding a collision with a stranger? The answer, it turns out, is yes!

The idea was taken up by Mathias Schmerling at the Humboldt University of Berlin, adapting the code developed by Christian Blum for the Corridor experiment. Chen Yang, one of my masters students, has now updated Mathias’ code and has produced some very nice new results.

Most of the time the pedestrian robots pass each other without fuss but in something between 1 in 5 and 1 in 10 trials we do indeed see an interesting dance. Here are a couple of examples of the majority of trials, when the robots pass each other normally, showing the robots’ trajectories. In each trial blue starts from the left and green from the right. Note that there is an element of randomness in the initial directions of each robot (which almost certainly explains the relative occurrence of normal and dance behaviours).

And here is a gif animation showing what’s going on in a normal trial. The faint straight lines from each robot show the target directions for each next possible action modelled in each robot’s simulation-based internal model (consequence engine); the various dotted lines show the predicted paths (and possible collisions) and the solid blue and green lines show which next action is actually selected following the internal modelling.

Here is a beautiful example of a ‘dance’, again showing the robot trajectories. Note that the impasse resolves itself after awhile. We’re still trying to figure out exactly what mechanism enables this resolution.

And here is the gif animation of the same trial:

Notice that the impasse is not resolved until the fifth turns of each robot.

Is this the first time that pedestrians passing each other – and in particular the occasional dance that ensues – has been computationally modelled?

All of the results above were obtained in simulation (yes there really are simulations within a simulation going on here), but within the past week Chen Yang has got this experiment working with real e-puck robots. Videos will follow shortly.


Acknowledgements.

I am indebted to the brilliant experimental work of first Christian Blum (supported by Wenguo Liu), then Mathias Schmerling who adapted Christian’s code for this experiment, and now Chen Yang who has developed the code further and obtained these results.




Alan Winfield is Professor in robotics at UWE Bristol. He communicates about science on his personal blog.
Alan Winfield is Professor in robotics at UWE Bristol. He communicates about science on his personal blog.





Related posts :



Robot Talk Episode 35 – Interview with Emily S. Cross

In this week's episode of the Robot Talk podcast, host Claire Asher chatted to Professor Emily S. Cross from the University of Glasgow and Western Sydney University all about neuroscience, social learning, and human-robot interaction.
03 February 2023, by

Sea creatures inspire marine robots which can operate in extra-terrestrial oceans

Scientists at the University of Bristol have drawn on the design and life of a mysterious zooplankton to develop underwater robots.
02 February 2023, by

Our future could be full of undying, self-repairing robots – here’s how

Could it be that future AI systems will need robotic “bodies” to interact with the world? If so, will nightmarish ideas like the self-repairing, shape-shifting T-1000 robot from the Terminator 2 movie come to fruition? And could a robot be created that could “live” forever?
01 February 2023, by

Sensing with purpose

Fadel Adib uses wireless technologies to sense the world in new ways, taking aim at sweeping problems such as food insecurity, climate change, and access to health care.
29 January 2023, by

Robot Talk Episode 34 – Interview with Sabine Hauert

In this week's episode of the Robot Talk podcast, host Claire Asher chatted to Dr Sabine Hauert from the University of Bristol all about swarm robotics, nanorobots, and environmental monitoring.
28 January 2023, by

Special drone collects environmental DNA from trees

Researchers at ETH Zurich and the Swiss Federal research institute WSL have developed a flying device that can land on tree branches to take samples. This opens up a new dimension for scientists previously reserved for biodiversity researchers.
27 January 2023, by





©2021 - ROBOTS Association


 












©2021 - ROBOTS Association